Reproductive Immunology and Mucosal Immunology
Our research group is based in the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Immunology and Microbiology and Oncology of Wayne State University, the Perinatology Research Branch (PRB) of Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute. We are also a member of the Mucosal Immunology Studies Team (MIST) of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH.
We study the regulation of immune responses during pregnancy, fetal and child development, because a large number of common reproductive and developmental disorders have immunological basis. Our long-term goal is to harness the knowledge gained from our work to develop diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive strategies to reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes, infant mortality and disability.
Immunological concepts and technologies are integral to our research. We collaborate with colleagues in Wayne State University and other leading institutions the US, Europe and Asia.
Humoral Immunity and B cells in pregnancy
The function of maternal humoral immunity has been assumed to be unimportant in pregnancy, and B cells were thought to be out-numbered by other immune cells in the uterus and decidua. However, in reproductive mucosal areas, antibodies confer frontline protection by limiting microbial invasion, eliciting immunity against noxious pathogens and promoting ignorance or tolerance to innocuous commensal microbes. Dysregulation of antibody responses are associated with a variety of pregnancy complications. With our expertise in immunology, we are studying the regulation of humoral immune responses in pregnancy. We are also analyzing how mechanisms regulating the normal behaviors of B cells break down in pathological pregnancy, and whether the restoration of these mechanisms can alleviate or prevent diseases.
Mucosal immune regulation mechanisms in the female reproductive tract and at the maternal-fetal interface
The female reproductive mucosal immune system protects the host against infections and adapts to a spectrum of physiological events, such as menstruation and pregnancy. A major immune defense mechanism in the female genital tract is the production of mucosal antibodies, mainly class-switched IgA and IgG. We are studying the immunological regulation of genital antibody production in pregnant and non-pregnant states.
During pregnancy, the placental immune system maintains a delicate immunological balance during pregnancy to ensure tolerance to a semi-allogeneic conceptus and surveillance against urogenital pathogens. A shift from this balance underlies many pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction and preterm labor. How the placental immune environment is initiated or maintained is not fully understood. We are identifying novel molecules and cells that play critical roles in the establishment and maintenance of the placental immune environment.
Regulation of antibody diversification and production by B cells
We apply a diverse array of cellular, histological and molecular techniques to elucidate mechanisms of antibody diversification and production by B cells, including heavy chain class switching from IgM to IgD, IgG, IgA or IgE and somatic hypermutation. These processes are critical for the diversification of the antibody repertoire and the generation of effective immunity against infection and cancer. They critically depend on the enzyme activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). Loss-of-function mutations in AID result in immunodeficiency while uncontrolled function of AID predisposes the individual to cancer. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of class switching and somatic hypermutation mediated by AID are under investigation.
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